1. How has the
US space program impacted our society?
U.S. Space Program
History of the Space Program
Sputnik I – launched by ___________ ___________ on October 4, 1957
World’s first artificial satellite (about the size of a _______________)
Start of the Space age and the U.S.-U.S.S.R. space race.
First American ____________ – Explorer 1 (launched January 31, 1958)
Vanguard 1 – suppose to be first but not launched until _____________1958
N.A.S.A. – was formed in October 1958
U.S. Space Program – Mercury Missions
April 1959 – Mercury 7 ________________ selected for the first flights.
Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, & Deke Slayton
January 1961 – Glenn, Grissom, & Shepard are selected to go up in the first _______________ missions.
January 1961 - Before man goes up, “Ham” the chimp makes a test flight in a Mercury space capsule. Successful!!
April 1961 – NASA selects Alan Shepard to be the ______________ American in space.
Initiated in 1958.
To orbit a manned spacecraft around __________________.
To investigate man’s ability to function in space.
To recover both man and spacecraft ___________________.
Before Alan Shepard’s flight – first human in space was ____________________ Yuri Gargarin (Vostok 1) on 4/12/61
First U.S. Manned Space Flight – Alan Shepard 5/5/61 (suborbital flight – lasted _____________ minutes)
2nd Manned Flight – Gus Grissom – 7/21/61 (suborbital flight – lasted _________________ minutes)
3rd Manned Flight – John Glenn – 2/20/62 (first orbital flight – 3 orbits – lasted about ___________ hours)
Three other successful missions – Slayton did not fly due to _____________ _____________ found 3 months before scheduled flight.
Gemini Space Missions
Was announced in 1962, and placed sets of ___________ astronauts in 12 flights.
Goals of the mission were:
To subject man and equipment to space flight up to _________ weeks.
To rendezvous and dock with orbiting vehicles.
To perfect methods of entering the atmosphere and landing at a pre-selected point on land. Landing method scratched in 1964. Landed in water.
Gus Grissom – flew on Gemini 3 and was first astronaut to fly in space ____________.
Ed White – flew on Gemini 4 and was the first American to ______________ in space.
First rendezvous in space – Gemini 6 & 7 – December 1965
Apollo Space Missions
The words of John F. Kennedy stated that by the end of the 1960’s, man would step foot on the __________.
Goals of the program were:
To establish the technology to meet other national interests in space.
To achieve preeminence in space for the ___________ ____________.
To carry out a program of scientific exploration of the ______________.
To develop man’s capability to work in the lunar environment.
Apollo 1 – crew died in a flash fire on 1/27/67 (Astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White, & Roger Chaffee passed away.)
Apollo 8 – first humans to leave Earth’s ______________ and orbit the moon.
Apollo 10 – did a full rehearsal for the Apollo 11 landing. Flew within 50,000 feet of the surface.
Apollo 11 – first humans to land on ___________ surface. Landed 7/20/69
Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, & Michael Collins
Armstrong – first ________________ on moon. (“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”)
Skylab Space Missions
America’s first experimental space ______________.
Goals for the mission were:
Prove that humans could live and work in space for long periods.
Expand our knowledge of _____________ astronomy beyond Earth.
Space Shuttle Missions
Was conceived in early 1970’s to carry crews and supplies to an orbiting space station.
Sally Ride – first ______________ to go into space (Challenger – 1983)
Reusable craft that is made up of an orbiter, two solid rocket boosters, & an external liquid fuel tank. Only external liquid fuel tank is ___________________!!
Is made up of 20 million moving parts. If 99% of parts work, 200,000 parts have _____________.
Takes off like a rocket, but lands like an airplane.
Space Shuttle Orbiters
Enterprise – __________ orbiter (tester – not fly in space)
Columbia – 1st orbiter in space (4/12/81) Destroyed 2/1/03
Challenger – 2nd orbiter to fly (4/4/83) Destroyed 1/28/86
Discovery – ___________3rd orbiter to fly (8/30/84)
Atlantis – 4th orbiter to fly (10/3/85)
Endeavor – 5th orbiter to fly (______________ Challenger) (5/7/92)
Each shuttle was designed for __________________ missions.
Three remaining orbiters were retired February 2011.
Space Station/Future Missions
First mission to space station was 10/2000
Built to house both U.S. and foreign space travelers
After 2010, shuttles replaced by new ________________ Capsule.