Sigmund Freud




ИмеSigmund Freud
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Major contributions to psychoanalysis


Anna Freud moved away from the classical position of her father, who was concentrating on the unconscious Id (a perspective she found to be restrictive) and instead emphasized the importance of the ego, the constant struggle and conflict it is experiencing by the need to answer contradicting wishes, desires, values and demands of reality. By this, she established the importance of the ego functions and the concept of defense mechanisms. Focusing on research, observation and treatment of children, Freud established a group of prominent child developmental analysts (which included Erik Erikson, Edith Jacobson and Margaret Mahler) who noticed that children's symptoms were ultimately analogue to personality disorders among adults and thus often related to developmental stages. At that time, these ideas were revolutionary and Anna provided us with a comprehensive developmental theory and the concept of developmental lines, which combined her father's important drive model with more recent object relations theories of development, which emphasize the importance of parents in child development processes.

As such, the formation of the fields of child psychoanalysis and child developmental psychology can be attributed to Anna Freud.

Anna Freud furthermore developed different techniques of assessment and treatment of childhood disorders, thereby contributing to our understanding of anxiety and depression as significant problems among children.

Anna Freud about essential personal qualities in Psychoanalysts


"Dear John ..., You asked me what I consider essential personal qualities in a future psychoanalyst. The answer is comparatively simple. If you want to be a real psychoanalyst you have to have a great love of the truth, scientific truth as well as personal truth, and you have to place this appreciation of truth higher than any discomfort at meeting unpleasant facts, whether they belong to the world outside or to your own inner person.

Further, I think that a psychoanalyst should have...interests...beyond the limits of the medical field...in facts that belong to sociology, religion, literature, ,[and] history,...[otherwise]his outlook on...his patient will remain too narrow. This point contains...the necessary preparations beyond the requirements made on candidates of psychoanalysis in the institutes. You ought to be a great reader and become acquainted with the literature of many countries and cultures. In the great literary figures you will find people who know at least as much of human nature as the psychiatrists and psychologists try to do.

Does that answer your question?"

Publications by Anna Freud:


  • Freud, Anna (1966-1980). The Writings of Anna Freud: 8 Volumes. New York: IUP. (These volumes include most of Anna Freud's papers.)

    • Vol. 1. Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers (1922-1935)

    • Vol. 2. Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense (1936)

    • Vol. 3. Infants Without Families Reports on the Hampstead Nurseries by Anna Freud

    • Vol. 4. Indications for Child Analysis and Other Papers (1945-1956)

    • Vol. 5. Research at the Hampstead Child-Therapy Clinic and Other Papers: (1956-1965)

    • Vol. 6. Normality and Pathology in Childhood: Assessments of Development (1965)

    • Vol. 7. Problems of Psychoanalytic Training, Diagnosis, and the Technique of Therapy (1966-1970)

    • Vol. 8. Psychoanalytic Psychology of Normal Development

  • Anna Freud in collaboration with Sophie Dann: An Experiment in Group Upbringing, in: 'The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child', VI, 1951.[2] A group of six three-year-old former Terezin children is observed as regards group behavior, psychological problems and adaption.
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